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Arduino Nano Controller

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The Arduino Nano is very much similar to the Arduino UNO. They use the same Processor (Atmega328p) and hence they both can share the same program. One big difference between both is the size UNO is twice as big as Nano and hence occupies more space on your project. Also Nano is breadboard friendly while Uno is not.

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Arduino Nano Pin Configuration

Pin Category Pin Name Details
Power Vin, 3.3V, 5V, GND Vin: Input voltage to Arduino when using an external power source (6-12V).

5V: Regulated power supply used to power microcontroller and other components on the board.

3.3V: 3.3V supply generated by on-board voltage regulator. Maximum current draw is 50mA.

GND: Ground pins.

Reset Reset Resets the microcontroller.
Analog Pins A0 – A7 Used to measure analog voltage in the range of 0-5V
Input/Output Pins Digital Pins D0 – D13 Can be used as input or output pins. 0V (low) and 5V (high)
Serial Rx, Tx Used to receive and transmit TTL serial data.
External Interrupts 2, 3 To trigger an interrupt.
PWM 3, 5, 6, 9, 11 Provides 8-bit PWM output.
SPI 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO) and 13 (SCK) Used for SPI communication.
Inbuilt LED 13 To turn on the inbuilt LED.
IIC A4 (SDA), A5 (SCA) Used for TWI communication.
AREF AREF To provide reference voltage for input voltage.


Arduino Nano Technical Specifications

Microcontroller ATmega328P – 8 bit AVR family microcontroller
Operating Voltage 5V
Recommended Input Voltage for Vin pin 7-12V
Analog Input Pins 6 (A0 – A5)
Digital I/O Pins 14 (Out of which 6 provide PWM output)
DC Current on I/O Pins 40 mA
DC Current on 3.3V Pin 50 mA
Flash Memory 32 KB (2 KB is used for Bootloader)
Frequency (Clock Speed) 16 MHz
Communication IIC, SPI, USART

Difference between Arduino Nano and Arduino UNO

Name Processor Operating/Input Voltage CPU speed Analog In/Out Digital IO/PWM EEPROM / SRAM[kB] Flash USB USART
Uno ATmega328P 5V / 7-12V 16 MHz 6 / 0 14 / 6 1 / 2 32 Regular 1
Nano ATmega328P 5V / 7-12V 16 MHz 8 / 0 14 / 6 1 / 2 32 Mini 1

Difference between Arduino Nano and Arduino Mega

There is a considerable amount of difference between the Arduino Nano and the Arduino mega as the processor used itself is different. Arduino Mega is more powerful than an Arduino Nano in terms of speed and number of I/O pins. As you might guess the size is also bigger than an Arduino UNO. Arduino Mega is normally used for projects which require a lot of I/O pins and different Communication protocols. The technical difference between Nano and Mega is shown below.

Name Processor Operating/Input Voltage CPU speed Analog In/Out Digital IO/PWM EEPROM / SRAM[kB] Flash USB USART
Mega ATmega2560 5V / 7-12V 16 MHz 16 / 0 54 / 15 4 / 8 256 Regular 4
Nano ATmega328P 5V / 7-12V 16 MHz 8 / 0 14 / 6 1 / 2 32 Mini 1

Understanding Arduino Nano

The Arduino board is designed in such a way that it is very easy for beginners to get started with microcontrollers. This board especially is breadboard friendly is very easy to handle the connections. Let’s start with powering the Board.

Powering you Arduino Nano:

There are totally three ways by which you can power your Nano.

USB Jack: Connect the mini USB jack to a phone charger or computer through a cable and it will draw power required for the board to function

Vin Pin: The Vin pin can be supplied with a unregulated 6-12V to power the board. The on-board voltage regulator regulates it to +5V

+5V Pin: If you have a regulated +5V supply then you can directly provide this o the +5V pin of the Arduino.


There are totally 14 digital Pins and 8 Analog pins on your Nano board. The digital pins can be used to interface sensors by using them as input pins or drive loads by using them as output pins. A simple function like pinMode() and digitalWrite() can be used to control their operation. The operating voltage is 0V and 5V for digital pins. The analog pins can measure analog voltage from 0V to 5V using any of the 8 Analog pins using a simple function liken analogRead()

These pins apart from serving their purpose can also be used for special purposes which are discussed below:

  • Serial Pins 0 (Rx) and 1 (Tx): Rx and Tx pins are used to receive and transmit TTL serial data. They are connected with the corresponding ATmega328P USB to TTL serial chip.
  • External Interrupt Pins 2 and 3: These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
  • PWM Pins 3, 5, 6, 9 and 11: These pins provide an 8-bit PWM output by using analogWrite() function.
  • SPI Pins 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO) and 13 (SCK): These pins are used for SPI communication.
  • In-built LED Pin 13: This pin is connected with an built-in LED, when pin 13 is HIGH – LED is on and when pin 13 is LOW, its off.
  • I2C A4 (SDA) and A5 (SCA): Used for IIC communication using Wire library.
  • AREF: Used to provide reference voltage for analog inputs with analogReference() function.
  • Reset Pin: Making this pin LOW, resets the microcontroller.

These special functions and their respective pins are illustrated in the arduino nano pin diagram shown above.

How to use Arduino Nano

It will hardly take 5-10 minutes to upload you first program to Arduino Nano. All you need the Arduino IDE an USB cable and your Nano board itself.

Download and Install Arduino:

The first step would be install the Arduino IDE which is available for download for free from the below link. After installing Arduino you might also want to install the drivers (link given below) for you Arduino to communicate with your Computer

Uploading your first program

Once arduino IDE is installed on the computer, connect the board with computer using USB cable. Now open the arduino IDE and choose the correct board by selecting Tools>Boards>Arduino/Nano, and choose the correct Port by selecting Tools>Port. Arduino Uno is programmed using Arduino programming language based on Wiring. To get it started with Arduino Uno board and blink the built-in LED, load the example code by selecting Files>Examples>Basics>Blink. Once the example code (also shown below) is loaded into your IDE, click on the ‘upload’ button given on the top bar. Once the upload is finished, you should see the Arduino’s built-in LED blinking. Below is the example code for blinking:

// the setup function runs once when you press reset or power the board void setup() { // initialize digital pin LED_BUILTIN as an output. pinMode(LED_BUILTIN, OUTPUT); } // the loop function runs over and over again forever void loop() { digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, HIGH); // turn the LED on (HIGH is the voltage level) delay(1000); // wait for a second digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, LOW); // turn the LED off by making the voltage LOW delay(1000); // wait for a second }


  • Prototyping of Electronics Products and Systems
  • Multiple DIY Projects.
  • Easy to use for beginner level DIYers and makers.
  • Projects requiring Multiple I/O interfaces and communications.

Arduino Nano 2D Model

Arduino Nano Dimensions

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